The Implementation Guide is a resource for implementing this evidence-based program. It provides important information about the staffing and functions necessary for administering this program in the user's setting. Additionally, the steps needed to carry out the program, relevant program materials, and information for evaluating the program are included. The Implementation Guide can be viewed and downloaded on the Program Materials page.
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Community Preventive Services Task Force Finding
Study participants were North Carolina women aged 40 to 44 years and 50 to 54 years. 82% were White; 15% were Black; and 3% were classified as "Other". 80% were married; and 40% had at least a college education. However, there is no reason to believe the interventions would not be acceptable to and appropriate for women in their 60s. And there have not been differential responses by race/ethnicity.
About the Study
Participants (N = 1287) recruited for the study included women aged 40 to 44 years and 50 to 54 years who were also enrolled by a large insurance carrier. Women were stratified by age and mammography use, and randomized to receive usual care (UC), tailored print materials (TP), or tailored print materials plus tailored telephone counseling (TP+TC). Usual care was the standard information sent by the insurance carrier and included a mailed mammography reminder letter sent on the woman's birthday and letters to providers identifying their patients in need of mammograms. In addition to usual care, TP women received a tailored booklet 2 to 3 weeks after completing baseline surveys, and a tailored newsletter 2 to 3 weeks after completing the 12-month survey. Women assigned to the TP+TC group also received a brief counseling call approximately 2 weeks after the booklet and newsletter were sent. Print materials were tailored according to responses from baseline and 12-month surveys. Women were interviewed again by phone at the 24-month follow-up. This last interview was for research purposes.
- Women in the TP+TC condition had more accurate perceptions of their breast cancer risk at 12 and 24 months than women in the TP or UC conditions.
- Women in the TP+TC condition had greater knowledge of mammography efficacy at 12 and 24 months than women in the TP or UC conditions.
- The effect on mammography use was significant in bivariate relationships although the differences were more modest in multivariate analyses. At 12 and 24 months, 18% to 20% of the UC group, 13% to 16% of the TP group, and 22% to 24% of the TP+TC group had mammograms. The ranges reflect different windows for reporting mammography use.
Rimer BK, Halabi S, Skinner CS, Lipkus IM, Strigo TS, Kaplan EB, Samsa GP. (2002). Effects of a Mammography Decision-Making Intervention at 12 and 24 Months. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 22, 247-257.
Dominick KL, Skinner CS, Bastian LA, Bosworth HB, Strigo TS, Rimer BK. (2003). Provider Characteristics and Mammography Recommendations Among Women in Their 40s and 50s. Journal of Women's Health, 12, 61-71.
Keller PA, Lipkus IM, Rimer BK. (2003). Affect, Framing, and Persuasion. Journal of Marketing Research, 40, 54-65.
Keller PA, Lipkus IM, Rimer BK. (2002). Depressive Realism and Health Risk Accuracy: The Negative Consequences of Positive Mood. Journal of Consumer Research, 29, 57-69.
Bosworth HB, Bastian LA, Kuchibhatla MN, Steffens DC, McBride CM, Skinner CS, Rimer BK, Siegler IC. (2001). Depressive Symptoms, Menopausal Status, and Climacteric Symptoms in Women at Mid-Life. Psychosomatic Medicine, 63, 603-608.
Rimer BK, Halabi S, Skinner CS, Kaplan EB, Crawford Y, Samsa GP, Strigo TS, Lipkus IM. (2000). The Short-Term Impact of Tailored Mammography Decision-Making Interventions. Patient Education and Counseling, 43, 269-285.
Lipkus IM, Kuchibhatla M, McBride CM, Bosworth HB, Pollak KI, Siegler IC, Rimer BK. (2000). Relationships Among Breast Cancer Perceived Absolute Risk, Comparative Risks and Worries. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 9, 973-975.
Rimer BK, Glassman B. (1999). Is There a Use for Tailored Print Communications in Cancer Risk Communication? Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Monographs, 25, 140-148. Bethesda:National Cancer Institute.